While discussing Geo-politics, you might have heard about a lot of terms, one of which is Superpowers. The term, superpowers, used for a nations that possesses the sphere of influence over other nations on a global scale. The influences as superpowers states can be political, economic, military, and soft power like art and culture.
When you look at the map, you notice that not all nations created equal. This is very obvious with the physical size. But it also contains the population, GDP, climate political stability, and several other factors, more specifically, power production over other countries.
In short, a leader of a certain country might have more power than the leader of the other country having the same size.
The nation having more power can influence the economy and politics of the less powerful nation. And thus superpower is a country that does this a lot of time. Superpowers exert their powers all over the globe regardless of the geography.
Throughout history, superpowers have risen and fallen. The Roman Empire, the most dominant empire in the ancient world, tore in the 2nd century across Europe and the Middle East before eventually losing its grip on its territories.
Later, the Mongol Empire, led by Genghis Khan, was the world’s largest land empire.Yet after division separated in the 13th century, they finally lost their grip.
The British Empire expanded through trading ventures was the history’s greatest empire by the early twentieth century. They were covering a quarter of the world’s surface with a fifth of the population living in it.
Currently, the only country which is a superpower right now is United States. And thoughts that it is likely to change in the next few decades. If we take a look at the latter half of the 20th century, the balance of power was different. The Soviet Union was the superpower in the world. USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and UACR were the most powerful nations in the world. They were the only nations having an atomic bomb.
As they were the atomic powers and had direct odds with each other. They realized that their direct war will cause the extinction of the human race. So, they preferred to take out their frustration on other nations. Through this, they managed to impose their influence over the rest of the world.
The US’ sphere of influence was concentrat over Western Europe, Oceania, and selected parts of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Moon.
Whereas, the Soviet Union’s influence was on Eastern Europe, much on Asia, and the other selected parts of Latin America, the Middle East and the rest of the world.
This became clear during various wars between the US and USSR. They fought in Vietnam, Korea and Afghanistan, and other proxy wars in China, Greece, Paraguay, Myanmar, Angola, Egypt, Central America, Bolivia, Congo, Yemen, Nigeria, South Africa, and various other places.
In each civil war, the US and USSR supported opposite regimes and governments. But if any of the government moves on from the agreement, they used to force upon through some cooperative. So these civil wars were not directly between the US and USSR. But North Vietnam supported by USSR and China versus South Vietnam supported by the US and NATO.
US and USSR were the only two nations considered to be superpowers until the end of WWII. At that time the British Empire was consider to be the third superpower. Until those areas that make it so super didn’t like Britain being super.
Further back, many nations have considered being superpowers from the Roman Empire to China’s various dynasties to the Mongol Empire to Prehistoric Czechoslovakia.
However, with the USSR having collapsed in 1991, the US has essentially been the only superpower on the world stage. Though this is changing with the rise of other potential superpowers.
Superpowers keep transiting now we will take a look at the future. And we will discuss various nations that are in the race of becoming the superpower.
The most likely considered superpower at the current moment is China. The World’s most populous nation and the one that has been growing more rapidly both economically and militarily. The “Rise of China” has become the most discussed topic in geo-politics.
Historically, all the cool kids on the world stage established themselves along trade routes. That’s the same thing China is currently doing. There are numerous massive projects under process by the Chinese government to turn the tides of global trades more towards themselves by building seaports in Sri Lanka to trains in Turkey to bridges in Bangladesh and most important the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) in Pakistan.
Over 60 countries have signed some sort of agreement with China. China will build some kind of infrastructure project for the country in exchange for economic and also political favors.
It is not the only country which is in the race of superpower but the European Union, too, is engage in this race. But this is a double-edged sword of EU.
It has a huge population and strong economy. But they are not quite as intrigued as they would be under a single nation.
The individual states like Germany and France would not be able to compete against the powers like the US, China, and Russia on their own. This can only happen in case of unity which will shift the balance of power towards the EU.
India has also been making claims for fame as a new superpower. Since they have the second most population and the largest democracy in the world. India, just like China, isn’t the richest country in the world but its economy is growing very fast.
Some other countries like Russia and Brazil appear to be superpowers in the future. However, the mere question of which country will achieve the superpower status. And which is the most asked question and is the minefield of arguments, theories, and financial projections.