75% of known newly emerging diseases that affect human originates in animals, including COVID-19. Coronavirus is a caution about what is to come. If we extract the thoughts of scientists around the globe, we can probably guess the next pandemic. These scientists are working on the next big threats as a pandemic to human health. We can guess what these diseases are coming from and how they are trying to stop them. Scientists believe there are millions of zoonotic diseases out there. Zoonotic diseases that can jump from animals to humans that we didn’t know about yet. We will look at three aspects that actually can cause pandemic.

Nipah virus from bats, Mers from camels, and swine flu from pigs. The world’s leading scientists have named three deadly viruses that can cause a pandemic in near future, they all are animals and humans experts.

Let’s start by taking a statement from one by one. Veasna has been working on the Nipah virus. The virus in Cambodia for many years now. Nipah virus is one of these zoonotic diseases that might cause a threat to human health, there is concern about the potential of this virus cause outbreaks and a pandemic.

Each year the World Health Organization reviews the large list of pathogens that cause a public health emergency and decide which ones to priorities in life with their limited resources. They focus on those that pose a great risk to human health, those that have pandemic potential, and those for which they do not have any vaccine.

Nipah virus in their top 10. It is a major concern at the moment and we have also experienced outbreaks in Malaysia, Bangladesh, and India which caused fatal diseases in humans.

There are several other reasons; it is so sinister, the disease’s long incubation period which can be up to 45 days, means that there is ample opportunity for a host to spread it, unaware they are even ill. Nipah can also affect a wide range of animals, making the possibility of it, spreading more likely.

It can be caught through direct contact by consuming contaminated food. Nipah virus is considered a deadly virus. The death rate can reach as high as 90%. Dr. Supaporn from Thailand highlighted how many deadly viruses bats harbor. Many specialists have found that bats have strong immunity. It can have harmful viruses in the body without any illness. Virus and bats both are happy.

Some suffering from Nipah may have experienced a range of unpleasant symptoms. The virus can cause encephalitis. Encephalitis is the swelling of the brain that leads to death and seizures.

Recently we observed more and more pneumonia cases caused by this virus. Safe to say this is a disease that WHO would like to hold on to.

Human activity is more likely to encourage another pandemic, the way they travel to the way they prepare food are lethal. The scientist is focusing their time and effort on is influenza in pigs.

Particularly following the 2009 swine flu pandemic. A massive collaboration has been taking place across 2500 pigs. European pig farms sampling more than 18000 individual pigs to understand the new threat we face when it comes to influenza and pigs. 

Scientists found that influenza viruses are likely to become pandemic viruses. They were present that more than 50% of the farm they visited, particularly Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands, a dense pork production areas.

It could be another pandemic waiting to happen. Martin and Timm work at Germany’s leading animal disease center. They ran massive sampling projects and found four influenza viruses. They all are lethal. Viruses infect humans and boost past or present defense against treatment. Viruses make a home themselves in humans.

If they pass all these steps and replicate in the host then they can further transmit from humans to humans. Influenza A virus that is present in humans can affect humans at a higher ratio. Young pigs transfer disease quickly.

They have not had time to build up the antibodies needed to fight them. In the European intense pork production system, pigs do not get old enough to fight off many influenza viruses.

Most pigs get only 6 months old, then they weigh 100kg and they are slaughtered. But this means always, every six months you have naïve pigs. Pigs are Petri dishes for the disease.

Domestic pigs act as mixing vessels, carry a range of pathogenic viruses, and transmit to animals and humans. The domestic pigs act as a serving tray. The wild animals can transmit the deadly virus to pigs and pigs will transmit it to rest hosts around them. Europe is trying to produce more pork than ever.

As a result, more diseases are taking place.

The last viruses that fascinated and horrified scientists are Mers. The virus can transmit from long neck animals from North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Humans raise camels in millions. Entire societies rely on a camel for money, food milk, and transport.

But camels were found to have Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Mers). This virus is 10 times more deadly than COVID-19. It was first discovered in Saudi Arabia and it was some kind of pandemic back then.

So it affected so many people and camels. It is a zoonotic pathogen that is found in camels. Kenya is home to nearly 10% of all the camels in the world. It may cause fibrosis in the lungs.

Like the world is dealing with COVID-19 respiratory diseases. The Mers is another threatening gesture from viruses. The mode of transmission and pathogenesis are the same. Mers and COVID belong to the same family and hence chief feature is similar.

These three are expected pandemic in the future. Scientists are afraid of havoc results that may happen in the future. Since coronavirus started, everything seems blurry and uncertain. We are not sure about the security and safety of the feature. We have devised a solution for pandemic as well as the expected deadly pandemic. As technology and science taking the world by storm, likely viruses are taking the world faster and quicker on other hands. Let’s see either this time we caught the virus before it affects us or the virus will surprise us just as COVID did.

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